Effectiveness of Ethanol Extract Neem Leaf (Azadirachta indica) on Mortality of Aedes aegypti Larvae

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Abstract

By : Lusi Martha Indrayani

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Faculties : Fakultas Kedokteran

Department : PS. PENDIDIKAN DOKTER

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is an infectious disease caused by the dengue virus and can be transmitted through the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquito as the primary vector. Prevention of DHF in Indonesia still not optimal because the number of cases that are likely to increase each year. Plant-based and environmentally friendly insecticides can be used as a control dan prevention of disease caused by mosquito Aedes aegypti. One of alternative option of plant-based insecticide is neem leaf (Azadirachta indica). This study aim to determine the effectiveness of the etanol extract of the neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) against Aedes aegypti larvae mortality. This study was an experimental study with post test only control group design. 168 of third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti are used in this study. This study uses six kinds of treatment concentration of neem leaf extract, which is 1%; 1,5%; 2%; 2,5%; 3%; 3,5% and control, with 3 times of repetition. Each treatment consist of 8 larvae. The data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis test followed by Mann Whitney test. Result of Kruskal Wallis test showed p value=0,004 (p<0,05), which means there is a statictically significant difference of mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae between the groups studied. Mann Whitney analysis showed significant differences between the concentration 1%; 1,5%; 2%; 2,5%; 3%; 3,5% with control. Mean concentration of Aedes aegypti larvae mortality is highest at a concentration 2,5%, 3%, and 3,5% of 8 (100%) after observation for 24 hours. From the test result that have been done, it can be concluded that the ethanol extract of neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) has potential as biolarvacide against Aedes aegypti larvae. Further research is needed with larger sampel size and greater concentration variation.

Keyword : Neem leaf extract, larvacides, Aedes aegypti

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