Knowing Thyroid Gland (Mumps) and Its Diseases
Mumps or in medical language called thyroid is one of the endocrine glands that produces thyroid hormone. This gland is located in the front of the middle neck, consisting of 3 parts of two lobes (shaped like a pyramid) right and left and ismus located in the middle (as a bridge that connects the two lobes). For normal people, the large lobes of this gland do not exceed the person's thumbs (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Shape dan location of Thyroid Gland
Thyroid hormone has extensive function and affects various organs in the body. It is like involved in the development of the fetus begins in the womb; regulates oxygen consumption, heat production, and free radical formation; its effect on heart function, stimulates the sympathetic nerves; effects on lung function; has red blood cell forming effect; affects gastrointestinal function; plays a role in bone, muscle and nervous function; plays a role in the metabolism of fats (lipids) and carbohydrates, and affects the work of other hormones. There are many functions and effects of this thyroid hormone, so that if there are abnormalities of the function, either its function decreased or increased, causing various symptoms in the body.
The function of the thyroid gland is governed by other glands, the pituitary gland (pituitary), located within the brain. This pituitary gland produces several hormones that aim to regulate some of the other hormone producing glands present in the body outside the brain. The pituitary gland present in the brain is known as the gland that regulates the function of glands present in other bodies. There is a hierarchy or axis between the pituitary gland and the lower gland. Examples associated with the thoracic gland are like: the pituitary gland produces a hormone called thyroid stimulating hormone (abbreviated TSH, the hormone that stimulates the thyroid). TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to increase thyroid hormone secretion by the thyroid gland and simultaneously causes enlargement of the thyroid gland. TSH regulates thyroid hormone levels to remain within the normal range in the blood. If for some reason thyroid hormone levels drop then TSH is released more by the pituitary gland in the hope of stimulating the release of more thyroid gland to normal levels. Conversely, if for some reason, the level of thyroid hormone released increases, then the pituitary gland will reduce the expenditure of TSH to the thyroid gland reduce thyroid hormone expenditure, in the hope that thyroid levels in the blood remained within normal limits. There is a feedback mechanism between the thyroid gland and the pituitary gland to keep the thyroid hormone levels within normal limits in the blood (Fig. 2). Layman can be assumed between the function of gas and brakes (pituitary gland) and car speed (thyroid gland). If the car runs too fast (too much thyroid gland produces thyroid hormone) then the car should be braking (pituitary gland decreases TSH expenditure); otherwise when the car runs too slow (too little thyroid gland secrete thyroid hormones) then the car should be gassed (pituitary gland secretes more TSH hormone). Therefore, the speed of the car remains constant. That is how the body regulates hormone levels, so that levels are always normal in the body, because the decrease or increase in hormone levels in the blood will cause various diseases.
Figure 2. The working relationship of the pituitary gland (pituitary) and thyroid gland.
In medical practice, in order to determine the function and disorder of thyroid gland function, thyroid hormone levels and TSH should be checked . Why check both hormones? Since the two hormones are interrelated (as described above) and in order to determine where the abnormality of the impaired thyroid function occurs, whether in the thyroid gland itself (primary) or abnormality is located in the pituitary gland (secondary). There are thyroid hormones in the blood: thyroxine (T4) and triodo-tironin (T3). T4 levels are higher than T3, and in blood some T3 comes from T4 (medical term conversion) and this T3 is actively working inside the cell. In the blood, most thyroid hormones are bound by proteins, and some small, precisely active ones, in free form. So, if you want to see the function of the thyroid gland then free T4 (FT4, F = free) or free T3 (FT3) is checked.
In order to determine the disease of the thyroid gland, it is not enough to just check thyroid hormone levels in the blood. An examination is required to view anatomical thyroid gland such as radiological examination such as ultrasound (ultrasound) or when more sophisticated examination is required. With this examination, it will be known large and form the thyroid gland. The presence or absence of thyroid gland disease is not determined by its magnitude. There is nothing that grows, there is a normal size or enlarged. The form of thyroid gland disorder may be uniform (diffuse), solid (nodule, single or multiple), or there is fluid in it (cyst) or combination between solid and cyst. From the combination of data form and large (known from ultrasound examination) and function (from the examination of thyroid hormone levels in the blood) of this thyroid gland, it can be determined type of thyroid gland disease. There are many types of diseases of the thyroid gland, in general the layman simply knows that thyroid gland disease is a deficiency of iodine. The next script will be delivered a variety of thyroid gland disease and its treatment.